Sunday, 3 April 2016

At the beginning of the way to success - Ta152. Part 2

Fw190 with compressed air cooler the fitted at the bottom of the fuselage
After entering Fw190 into service in 1941,  a Luftwaffe gained the distinct advantage over Allied hardware aviation. However, British by entering soon Spitfires MkIX, the advantage clearly reduced. Even more difficult the situation has become for defence the German sky. Introduction to night operations Lancaster and Halifax, which operate on the high altitude, caused more and more problems for Luftwaffe aircraft's: Messerschmitt Bf110 and Junkers Ju88. The need for a high-altitude fighter became clear and necessary. Unfortunately, just at the beginning of 1944, Junkers began serial production of Jumo 213 E, a modified version of the Jumo 213 A. This engine had a two-stage, three-speed compressor and was in series production from middle of 1944 in contrast to DB603 Series E and L (which had similar performance characteristics)  which went into series production only at the beginning of 1945. another engine to be attempts (only a few) was the BMW 801TJ engine with a turbocharger. Jumo Ju213 E was a milestone for the creation of high altitude interceptor under the Luftwaffe service.Only these engines could realistically meet the challenges of altitude aircraft. Finally, in the history of Ta152 we can find three paths that team engineers of Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG came to the place in which was born Ta152. Three independent stages full of experiences and faults, successes and failures.

Stage 1: Fw190B

Based on the experience gained during the tests with the prototype Fw190 V12 and the three other aircraft Fw190A-3/U7, factory Focke-Wulf installed a three serial models Fw190A-1 with engines BMW 801 D-2 and cabin pressure, giving the aircraft a new designation for the Fw190B-0.

Aircraft numbers:
  • 0046 - transferred to research normal cabin pressure in E. Stelle Rechlin June 1, 1944.
  • 0047 - equipped with double-glazed canopy, was donated to the E. Stelle Rechlin January 4, 1944.
    Fw190B-0, , serial number: 0047
  • 0048 - submitted for testing normative pressurized cabin E. Stelle Rechlin August 5, 1944
These three machines were similarly armed with two MG17 guns above the engine and two MG151 canons in the wings and ll had a possibility to mount additional MG/FF canons on the outer part of the wings. On radio equipment consisted FuG 16Z and FuG 25 radio
The fourth (0049) B-0 version , was also remodeled version of A-1 and has a BMW engine 801D-2 with additional fuel injection installation GM1 with 85 liter of tank, mounted behind the cockpit. This machine, 23 march 1944 was transferred to the BMW factory in order to further research for engine with the fuel injection GM  installation.
Next three built planes was a prototypes of B versions . First one, was already pre-production version of Fw190 B-1 with a typical 18, 3 m2 and normal for A series landing gear: serial number 190.0210.811. This plane had a BMW802 d-2 engine  with a fuel injection system (GM1) and cabin pressure. But engineers removed mixture tank for a GM installation and added additional 115 l fuel of tank to increase the range of the aircraft. In the opposite to previous prototypes , this one was armored by four MG17 guns, two above the engine and two  at the base of the wings. Plane had this same radio equipment as in previous three prototypes.
The last prototypes Fw190B was as planes with serial numbers:
  • 7347 - Fw190 V45 - this one, was tested directly in the factory Focke-Wulf plants, by the test pilots 
  • 530115 - Fw190 V47 - another plane with 115 liters long range tank
Both of these aircraft had a typical wings surface 18.3 m2, but didn't have pressurized cabin.. 
Only aircraft done in the first group  were to constitute the prototype of altitude  aircraft Fw190B, but not brought to mass production. Produced only a pre-production versions of the B-1. Further production was halted by the RLM, as complying with the requirement of the program of Höhenjäger 1

Stage 2: Fw190C

End of the failed program Höhenjäger 1, basically didn't have any influence for the parallel running program, called Höhenjäger 2. 
Höhenjäger 2 program was based on the tested aircraft with engine DB 603, which at that time was subject to intense development work. The use of engine DB 603 and a new turbocharger, constructed by DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrtand ) and Hirth, forced the implementation of a completely new prototype of aircraft. Kurt Tank received from Daimler-Benz plants a few completely new engine prototypes: DB 603A-0, A-1, A-2 and DB 603Aa. The engines 0,1,2 have power at the ground in 1288 kW, full pressure engines reached at an altitude of 5700 m, at a altitude of 10 000 m, already had only the power of 698 kW. The Aa engine had less power at the ground - 1225 kW, but full operating pressure maintained to a altitude of 7 000 m.

To build the prototype Fw190C, engineres used 10 version of the A-1 and A-2 of series production:

  • Fw190 V13, serial number: 0036. SK+JS, engine DB 603 A-1, radio equipment: FuG VII and FuG 25, fuselage: A-1, test flight without cabin pressure. The aircraft was crashed during a test flight 30 July 1942.
    Fw190 V-13, front

    Fw190 V13, engine DB 603A-0
    Fw190 V13, serial number: 0036. SK+JS
    Drwing of V13
  • Fw190 V15, serial number: 0037, CF+OV, engine: DB 603A-2. The aircraft was tested without weapons and pressurized cabin. He served as a flying test bench for new engine with centrifugal compressor
    Fw190 V15 during conversion
    Fw190 V15, CF+OV
  • Fw190 V16, serial number: 0038, CF+OW, engine: DB 603Aa (serial number: 174402) with centrifugal compressor. 2 August 1942 year, the prototype was delivered to further testing at the factory E.Stelle in  Echterdingen. The ptrototypr was flown by Hauptmann Ellenrieder. Despite various problems, they managed to carry out a flight to a height of 11 000 m. After replacing the DB 603Aa engine to DB 603EM and L, Hauptmann Ellenrieder achieved outstanding performance of speed: 7 000 m / 725 km per hour. Possibility for that performance gave a installation of a fuel injection: MW50. The plane still had a reserve of 22 km speed and could increase of ceiling to 12 000 m. During the daily bombardment prototype V16 and a few other was completely destroyed
    Fw190 V16, CF+OW, during start the engine DB 603
    Right and left side of front fuselage of Fw190 V16, CF+OW with DB 603Aa engine.
The prototypes V13 , 15, 16 were versions of transition between Fw190B and C. The prototype V18 with serial number: 0040 was already a standard version  C. 
  • Fw190 V18, serial number:0040, CF+OY. Primary this version was planned for engine DB 603G with turbocharger, but finally used DB 603A-1 with four blades propeller. Aircraft ws tested without pressurized cabin. rdio equipment: FuG VIIa and FuG 25. The engine use a turbocharger TK 9AC
    Turbocharger TK 9AC
    (designed by DVL and Hirth). The device was mounted on the underside of the plane and required many adaptation works. The compressor, mounted on the underside slightly changed the appearance of the V18 and where he was given the name of 'Kangaroo'. V18 had to install new system for supply exhaust gases to the turbocharger. These were two pipes located on the side of the fuselage, running from the exhaust of the engine, above the wings and to the underside of the fuselage, where was installed gas turbine, driving a turbocharger. Anyway, all changes made in this prototype drastically slowed the aircraft, made him not sober, difficult to balance already on the ceiling of 7 700 m, pressurized cabin showed a leak, and therefore not carried out tests on the ceiling above 10 000 m. Sander, test pilot factory Daimler-Benz described the aircraft as unfit to fly. After suggestions Sander introduced a number of changes, including the replacement of the engine DB 603S (DB 603A engine with turbocharger TK 11) is not obtained any decisive changes in parameters and the quality of the flight. Rebuilt version designated as V18 / U1.
    Fw190 V8/U1, first 'Kanguruh'
    Fw190 V18/U1 'Kanguruh', front
    Fw190 V18/U1 'Kanguruh'
    Fw190 V18/U1 'Kanguruh', CF+OY
  • Fw190 V29, serial number: 0054, GH+KS. The reconstruction was completed in March 1943, in June handed over to the Hirt factory, for the purposes of further testing engine and compressor. After a series of tests, the aircraft was allocated to rebuild one of the prototypes of the Ta152.
  • Fw190 V30, seril number: 0055, GH+KT, engine: DB 603S-1 without turbocharger. . Testing in Hirth factory in April 1943 with  four blades wooden propeller. This version with a few changes, later also was converted into one of the prototypes of Ta152
  • Fw190 V31, serial number: 0056, GH+KU. 29 May 1943, was broken and completely destroyed during testing plants E.Stelle Rechlin.
  • Fw190 V32, serial number: 0057, GH+KV, engine: DB 603A and G. This version was armed with a prototype d MG 151/20 cannon, mounted in the wings.During testing at the factory Daimler-Benz revealed a lot of problems with the engine and compressor. Finaly, it was rebuilt for the next prototype of Ta152.
  • Fw190 V33, serial number: 058, GH+KW. After testing in Rechlin , was converted into next prototypr of Ta152.
V33 finished his work on the program Höhenjäger 2. Problems with the development and series production engine DB 603, led to the RLM decision to terminate this program. The decision was made in April 1944. At the same time, Kurt Tank obtain very good results in the development of FW190D, which used the engine Junkers Jumo213A. This engine retrofit installation in the fuel injection MW50 and GM1, was this time, the only efficient and available source of power for the newly designed fighter aircraft.

It's time to get acquainted with the stage 3, the history of Ta152 - Focke-Wulf FW190D Dora ... soon

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