Thursday, 12 November 2015

Messerschmitt Me262 Schwalbe/Sturmvogel. Part 4. German Dzib -Compiler-

Two-seat ME 262S/End of the Line

The high performance of the Me-262 made a tandem-seat operational conversion trainer version very desireable, and such an aircraft, the "Me-262B-1a", was introduced in the summer of 1944. The trainer of course had dual controls, with the second seat replacing one of the fuel tanks. Range was extended by fitting two 300 liter (80 US gallon) external tanks under the forward fuselage. About fifteen were built.
The trainer led to the impressive "Me-262B-1a/U1" night fighter, featuring "FuG-218 Neptun" long-wavelength radar and "Naxos" centimetric-radar-homing gear, operated by the back-seater. Armament was two MK-108 30 millimeter cannon and two MG-151 20 millimeter cannon. The type was put through trials in October 1944 by the well-known Hajo Hermann. The Neptun "antler" antennas slowed the aircraft down, but it was still faster than the hated British Mosquito, which preyed on German night-fighters.


During the following winter, Kurt Welter, head of "Kommando Stamp", used Me-262A-1a day fighters for "Wilde Sau (Wild Boar)" night fighting, and in April the unit obtained a few of the Me-262B-1a/U1 night-fighter variants. Despite all the difficulties, Welter claimed 20 kills, making him one of the first jet aces and likely the highest-scoring jet ace in all history.
By the end of the war, Messerschmitt was working on a prototype of the improved "Me-262B-2a" night fighter with a longer fuselage and increased fuel capacity. It was fitted with the Neptun radar at the outset, but there were plans to fit it with the "Berlin" centimetric radar, with improved range and resolutions and a dish hidden in the nose, instead of the clumsy and drag-inducing "antlers" of the long-wavelength radar. There was also consideration of fitting the Me-262B-2a with upward-firing cannon installed in the rear fuselage to allow it to attack RAF bombers from their belly blind spot.
However, as with all its sisters, the Me-262B-2a was too little and too late. The Jumo-004B engines were never very satisfactory for operational use. The fact that production engines had been designed to minimize use of precious high-strength metals meant that the blades tended to rapidly lengthen or "creep", and the engines sometimes had to be junked after as little as ten hours of flight operations.
Over 1,400 Me-262s were built, but only a relatively small portion of them ever saw action. Fuel was scarce, and Allied aircraft strafed and bombed at will. It appears that the Luftwaffe never had more than 200 on strength at any one time. The Me-262 shot down about 150 Allied aircraft, versus the loss of 100 Me-262s in action, an unimpressive war record.
The Me-262 had no real effect on the course of the war, though it would provide the Allies with plenty of inspiration in the postwar period. It was well in advance of anything the Allies had or had plans to build. Adolf Galland flew British Gloster Meteors in Argentina after the war and felt that if the Meteor's reliable centrifugal-flow engines had been mated to the Me-262's advanced airframe, the result would have been the most formidable of the first-generation jet fighters. The engine, it seems, was another case of the odd tendency to German engineering to be too clever for its own good, in pursuing the more promising axial-flow engine at the expense of the simpler centrifugal-flow engine.
After the war, Me-262s that had fallen into Allied hands were evaluated by flight test groups, one of the best-known being a USAAF team named "Watson's Whizzers", led by Colonel Harold E. "Hal" Watson of USAAF Air Technical Intelligence. Watson's pilots and ground crew managed to find intact Me-262s at the Lechfeld airstrip in Bavaria, and were assisted in their test flights by German ground crews familiar with the aircraft and even two English-speaking German test pilots, Ludwig Hofmann and Karl Baur. The Me-262s were then shipped to the US on the Royal Navy "jeep" carrier HMS REAPER for further evaluation at Wright Field in Ohio. The tests there included a competitive fly-off against a Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter that concluded the Me-262 was generally superior.
A small number of Me-262s were completed or rebuilt in Czechoslovakia and flown by the Czech Air Force on an experimental basis. The Me-262A-1a became the "S-92", while the Me-262B-1a trainer became the "CS-92". (40) (41) (42) (43) (44)

MEET THE CREW...
(Credit: Jim Larson)
Both of the completed airplanes and most of the crew (from left to right).
Back Row - Joe Brazil, Chris Cooper, Maureen McRight, Bob Hammer,
Wolfgang Czaia, Mike Anderson, Tim Clark, Dick Burnett, and Don Davis.
Front Row - Mike Harris, Doug Arpke, Garrett Downing,
Ralph Corbin, John Callison, Bob Murray, and Austin Ballard.
Not pictured - Jim Byron, Nick Cirelli, Paul Ferrara, Ron Fischer, and Tom Susor.
Would you like to ride in a Messerschmitt Me 262?
White 1 engine test
Me 262 Tango-Tango made its international debut
at the ILA 2006 airshow in Berlin.
Tango-Tango is now back at its home base in Manching.
We are happy to report that the aircraft performed flawlessly while flying at least once a day during the show.

About the Me 262 Project:
You've heard the rumors, perhaps even seen a magazine article or two -- several Me 262 jets are now under construction in the United States!!
This incredible project is the result of a decade of privately-administered effort to create flight worthy examples of the Messerschmitt 262 fighter, and is now entering its final stages. Formerly subcontracted to the Texas Airplane Factory and administered by Classic Fighter Industries, Inc. the WTMF owner's group has now assumed watch over the final, and most critical, phase of the project. Our Seattle-based team of expert designers, engineers and technicians recently completed the flight test program for the first of our five jets, while the second machine is rapidly approaching similar tests.
If you are seeking accurate, timely information from those within the project itself, you've come to the right place. We will be updating this site at least monthly (see the LATEST UPDATES), and adding new features throughout the year. (46)

Flyable reproductions

Me 262 (A-1c) replica of (A1-a), Berlin air show, 2006.
In January 2003, the American Me 262 Project, based in Everett, Washington, completed flight testing to allow the delivery of near-exact reproductions of several versions of the Me 262 including at least two B-1c two-seater variants, one A-1c single seater and two "convertibles" that could be switched between the A-1c and B-1c configurations. All are powered by General Electric J85 engines and feature additional safety features, such as upgraded brakes and strengthened landing gear. The "c" suffix refers to the new J85 powerplant and has been informally assigned with the approval of the Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany (47) (the Werk Number of the reproductions picked up where the last wartime produced Me 262 left off – a continuous airframe serial number run with a 50-year production break).
Flight testing of the first newly manufactured Me 262 A-1c (single-seat) variant (Werk Number 501244) was completed in August 2005. The first of these machines (Werk Number 501241) went to a private owner in the southwestern United States, while the second (Werk Number 501244) was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation at Manching, Germany. This aircraft conducted a private test flight in late April 2006, and made its public debut in May at the ILA 2006. The new Me 262 flew during the public flight demonstrations. (48) Me 262 Werk Number 501241 was delivered to the Collings Foundation as White 1 of JG 7; this aircraft offered ride-along flights starting in 2008. (49) The third replica, a non-flyable Me 262 A-1c, was delivered to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in May 2010. (50)

Collings Foundation's replica Me 262 B-1a, Marana Ariz., 2013.

Postwar variants
Avia S-92[89]
Czech-built Me 262 A-1a (fighter) (51)
Avia CS-92
Czech-built Me 262 B-1a (fighter trainer, two seats)

Reproductions
These reproductions are constructed by Legend Flyers (later Me 262 Project) of Everett, Washington. (52) The Jumo 004 engines of the original are replaced by more reliable General Electric CJ610 engines. The Jumo 004 was hampered by poor workmanship and a lack of high-temperature super alloys. (53) The first Me 262 reproduction (a two-seater) took off for the first time in December 2002 and the second one in August 2005. This one was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation and was presented at the ILA airshow in 2006. (54)

A-1c
American privately built, based on A-1a configuration.
B-1c
American privately built, based on B-1a configuration.
A/B-1c
American privately built, convertible between A-1c and B-1c configuration.

Powerplant
The BMW 003 (full RLM designation BMW 109-003) was an early axial compressor turbojet engine produced by BMW AG in Germany during World War II. The 003 and the Junkers Jumo 004 were the only German turbojet engines to reach production during World War II.
Work had begun on the design of the BMW 003 before its contemporary, the Jumo 004, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with it in mind were re-engined with the Jumo powerplant instead. The most famous case of this was the Messerschmitt Me 262, which used the 003 in two of the V-series prototypes and in the two experimental A-1b aircraft. The only production aircraft to use the BMW 003 were the Heinkel He 162 and the late C-series versions of the Arado Ar 234.
About 500 BMW 003 engines were built in Germany, but very few were ever installed in aircraft. The engine also formed the basis for turbojet development in Japan during the war, and in France and the Soviet Union following the war.

Design and development
The practicality of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company. Recognising the potential of the invention, the Reich Air Ministry (German: Reichsluftfahrtministerium, abbreviated RLM) encouraged Germany's aero engine manufacturers to begin their own programmes of jet engine development, offering contracts to both Junkers and BMW for an engine capable of 690 kg (1,520 lb) static thrust. (55)
The BMW 003 began development as a project of the Brandenburgische Motorenwerke (Brandenburg Motor Works, known as "Bramo"), under the direction of Hermann Östrich and assigned the RLM designation 109-003 (using the RLM's "109-" prefix, common to all jet and rocket


engine projects). Bramo was also developing another turbojet, the 109-002. In 1939, BMW bought out Bramo, and in the acquisition, obtained both engine projects. The 109-002 had a very sophisticated contra-rotating compressor design intended to eliminate torque, but was abandoned in favour of the simpler engine, which in the end proved to have enough development problems of its own.
Construction began late in the same year and the engine ran for the first time in August 1940, (56) but produced only 150 kg (330 lb) thrust, just half what was desired. (55) The first flight test took place in mid-1941, mounted underneath a Messerschmitt Bf 110. Problems continued, however, so delaying the program that while the Me 262 (the first aircraft intended to use the engine) was ready for flight-testing, there were no power plants available for it and it actually began flight tests with a conventional Junkers Jumo 210 piston engine in the nose. It was not until November 1941 that the Me 262 V1 was flown with BMW engines, which both failed during the test. (57) The prototype aircraft had to return to the airfield on the power of the piston engine, which was still fitted.
The general usage of the BMW powerplant was abandoned for the Me 262, except for two experimental examples of the plane known as the Me 262 A-1b. The Me 262A-1a production version used the competing Jumo 004 whose heavier weight required the wings to be swept back in order to move the center of gravity into the correct position. Work on the 003 continued anyway, and by late 1942 it had been made far more powerful and reliable. The improved engine was flight tested under a Junkers Ju 88 in October 1943 and was finally ready for mass production in August 1944. Completed engines earned a reputation for unreliability; the time between major overhauls (not technically a TBO) was about 50 hours. (58) (The competing Jumo 004's was between thirty and fifty, and may have been as low as ten.) (58)

Developments of the engine included the 003C, which raised thrust to 900 kg (2,000 lb), and the 003D, which raised it to 1,250 kg (2,760 lb), in addition to having eight compressor stages and two turbine stages. (59)
The only production aircraft to use the 003 were the Heinkel He 162, which fitted a modified "E" version of the engine, modified with ventral mounting points to allow it to be mounted atop the fuselage of an aircraft. The four-engined Arado Ar 234C variants were also designed to use the more available BMW jet engine. (60)
The BMW 003 proved cheaper in materials than the company's own 801 radial, RM12,000 to RM40,000, and cheaper than the Junkers Jumo 213 inverted V12 piston engine at RM35,000, but slightly more costly than the competing Junkers Jumo 004's RM10000. (61) Moreover, the 004 needed only 375 hours to complete (including manufacture, assembly, and shipping), compared to 1,400 for the 801. (62) At Kolbermoor, location of the Heinkel-Hirth engine works, the Fedden Mission, led by Sir Roy Fedden, found jet engine manufacturing was simpler and required lower-skill labor and less sophisticated tooling than piston engine production; in fact, most of making of hollow turbine blades and sheet metal work on jets could be done by tooling used in making automobile body panels. (63) The lifetime of the combustors was estimated at 200 hours. (58)
One late version of the engine added a small rocket motor (the BMW 109-718) at the rear and usually just above the exhaust of the engine, which added some 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) thrust each for three to five minutes, for take off and short dashes. (64) In this configuration, it was known as the BMW-003R and was tested, albeit with some serious reliability problems, on single prototypes for advanced models of the Me 262


(Me 262C-2b Heimatschützer II {Home Defender II}), (65) and He 162 (He 162E). Both prototypes flew under hybrid jet/rocket power during March 1945, (65) though records do not indicate the results of testing with the 162E.
Only about 500 examples of the BMW 003 were built, (61) but the Fedden Mission postwar estimated total German jet engine production by mid-1946 could have reached 100,000 units a year, or more. (58)
The 003 was intended for export to Japan, but working examples of the engine were never supplied. Instead, Japanese engineers used drawings and photos of the engine to design an indigenous turbojet, the Ishikawajima Ne-20.

Turboshaft development
The 003 was selected as the basis for a gas turbine development project for the German military's anticipated need for what is today called a turboshaft powerplant for multiple needs — this project was called the GT 101, using the 003 axial-flow turbojet as the starting point in mid-November 1944. Its original purpose would have been to re-engine thePanther tank with a turboshaft-based power system, giving it a 27 hp/ton power-to-weight ratio — just over twice the factor that the Panther's original gasoline-fueled Maybach V12 piston engine provided. (66)

Post-war use
Following the war, two captured 003s powered the prototype of the first Soviet jet, the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9. Blueprints for BMW engines had been seized by Soviet forces from the Basdorf-Zühlsdorf plant near Berlin and from the Central Works near Nordhausen. Production of the 003 was set up at the "Red October" GAZ 466


(Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or Gorky Automobile Plant) in Leningrad, where the engine was mass-produced from 1947 under the designation RD-20 (reactivnyi dvigatel, or "jet drive"). (67)

After the Allied occupation of Germany, Marcel Dassault assisted Hermann Östrich in moving from the American Zone of occupied Germany into the French Zone. Within a couple of years, he was working for Voisin, a division of SNECMA, France's state-owned aircraft engine company. Using the basic design of the 003, he produced the larger Atarjet engine that powered Dassault's Ouragan, Dassault Mirage III and Mystère fighters. (68)

Variants (69)
BMW 003 A1 (TL 109-003)
Prototype, 5.87 kN (1,320 lbf) / 8,000 rpm / sea level.

BMW 003 A2 (TL 109-003)
Initial production variant, 7.83 kN (1,760 lbf) / 9,500 rpm / sea level.

BMW 003 C (TL 109-003)
Improved design, reduced weight A2, 8.81 kN (1,980 lbf) / 9,500 rpm / sea level

BMW 003 D (TL 109-003)
Improved design C, 8.81 kN (1,980 lbf) / 9,500 rpm / sea level.

BMW 003 E
With ventral mounting points for use on the Heinkel He 162 and Henschel Hs 132.

BMW 003 R (TLR 109-003)
An A2 with a BMW 718 (RLM powerplant number 109-718) liquid-fuel rocket fixed permanently above the jet exhaust nozzle, running on R-stoff (a.k.a. Tonka or TONKA-250, 50% triethylamine and 50% xylidine) for fuel and SV-Stoff (aka RFNA: 94% HNO3, 6% N2O4) oxidizer, code-named Salbei (sage). The R delivered a combined thrust of 20.06 kN (4,510 lbf) for 3 minutes.


Applications
• Arado Ar 234
• Heinkel He 162
• Messerschmitt Me 262 (A-1b test version, and Heimatschützer II experimental interceptor only)

Specifications (BMW 003A-2) (69)
General characteristics
• Type: Axial flow turbojet
• Length: 3,632.2 mm (143 in)
• Diameter: 690.9 mm (27.2 in)
• Dry weight: 623.7 kg (1,375 lb)
Components
• Compressor: 7-stage axial compressor
• Combustors: 1 annular combustion chamber
• Turbine: Single-stage axial
• Fuel type: J-2 diesel fuel or gasoline
• Oil system: Pressure feed at 586 kPa (85 psi), dry sump with 4 scavenge pumps with annular tank and cooler, using oil grade 163 S.U. secs (35 cs) (D.T.D 44D) at 38 °C (100 °F)

Performance
• Maximum thrust: 7.83 kN (1,760 lbf) at 9,500 rpm at sea level for take-off
• Overall pressure ratio: 3.1:1
• Air mass flow: 19.28 kg (42.5 lb)/sec at 9,500 rpm
• Turbine inlet temperature: 770 °C (1,418 °F)
• Specific fuel consumption: 142.694 kg/kN/hr (1.4 lb/lbf/hr)
• Thrust-to-weight ratio: 0.0125 kN/kg (1.282 lbf/lb)
• Normal, static: 6.89 kN (1,550 lbf) / 9,000 rpm / sea level
• Military flight: 6.23 kN (1,400 lbf) / 9.500 rpm / 2,500 m (8,202 ft) / 900 km/h (559 mph; 486 kn)
• Normal, flight: 2.85 kN (640 lbf) / 11,500 rpm / 11,000 m (36,089 ft) / 900 km/h (559 mph; 486 kn)

BMW 003 engine at the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr

Specifications (Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a) (70) (71)
General characteristics
• Crew: 1
• Length: 10.60 m (34 ft 9 in)
• Wingspan: 12.60 m (41 ft 6 in)
• Height: 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in)
• Wing area: 21.7 m² (234 ft²)
• Empty weight: 3,795 kg[100] (8,366 lb)
• Loaded weight: 6,473 kg[100] (14,272 lb)
• Max. takeoff weight: 7,130 kg[100] (15,720 lb)
• Powerplant: 2 × Junkers Jumo 004 B-1 turbojets, 8.8 kN (1,980 lbf) each
• Aspect ratio: 7.32

Performance
• Maximum speed: 900 km/h (559 mph)
• Range: 1,050 km (652 mi)
• Service ceiling: 11,450 m (37,565 ft)
• Rate of climb: 1,200 m/min (At max weight of 7,130 kg) (3,900 ft/min)
• Thrust/weight: 0.28

Armament
• Guns: 4 × 30 mm MK 108 cannon (A-2a: two cannon)
• Rockets: 24 × 55 mm (2.2 in) R4M rockets
• Bombs: 2 × 250 kg (550 lb) bombs or 2 × 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombs (A-2a variant)



Me 262 Lyrics (1) (72)
An airplane's place in popular culture is secure when Blue Oyster Cult writes a song about it.


Blue Oyster Cult – Me 262 Lyrics


Strange shapes light up the night
Never seen them though I hope I might
Don't ask if they are real
The men in black, their lips are sealed


Fantasy it fills my mind
To leave this place before my time
Release myself from earthly care
My dream may be your nightmare


I turn my hope's up to the sky
I'd like to know before I die
Memories will slowly fade
I lift my eyes and say


Come on, take me away
Come on, take me away
Come here, girl, close to me
A thousand stars your eye can see


First star we see tonight
I wish I may I wish I might
I turn my hopes up to the sky
I'd like to know before I die


Memories will slowly fade
I lift my eyes and say
Come on, take me away
Come on, take me away


I turn my hopes up to the sky
I'd like to know before I die
Memories will slowly fade
I lift my eyes and say


Come on, take me away 

Songwriters: PEARLMAN, SAMUEL / ROESER, DONALD / BLOOM, E
Me 262 lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC


Me 262 Project

The Me 262 flies again! Hard to believe, but after fifty years, when all original Me 262s are in museums, and distinctly un-flyable, the guys of the Me 262 Project have built exact replicas of the original jets. It's an amazing story. They re-built virtually identical airplanes.
From the beginning, there was little interest in creating a plane that only looked like a Me 262; the objective was to create precision duplicates of the jet. There were significant technical challenges to overcome: surviving airframes were rare indeed and technical drawings were incomplete -- not to mention scattered across two continents.
Without a master pattern to follow, it simply could not be done. What was desperately needed was an original Me 262 that could be torn apart, analyzed, and duplicated, piece by piece. Nothing less would work. Could such a plane be found?
The ideal candidate aircraft was found in an unlikely setting: a solitary example of an un-restored and original Me 262 was sitting outside of Willow Grove Naval Air Station in eastern Pennsylvania. (1)



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