Tuesday, 10 November 2015

Heinkel He219 Uhu. Operational history and developments. Part 2 . German Dzib-Compiler-

Operational History
A production He 219 A with Hirschgeweih VHF Radar Antennas.
The He 219 had an auspicious combat debut. On the night of 11-12 june1943,  Werner Streib fle the V9 and shot down five bombers between 01:05 and 02: 22 hours, before crashing on landing. (3)(4) Claims have been made that, "In the next ten days the three Heinkel He 219A-0 pre-production aircraft would shoot down a total of 20 RAF aircraft, including six of the previously "untouchable" de Havilland Mosquito fighter-bombers. Greatly encouraged, Kammhuber continued to press for immediate production." (5) No record of corresponding Mosquito losses or any documentary evidence exists, that He 219 pilots claimed six Mosquitos. (6)(7)(8)(9)
The first major production series was the He 219 A-0, although initially the preproduction series, it matured into a long running production series, due to numerous changes incorporated into the design, along with the cancellation of several planned variants. Production problems as a result of Allied bombing in March meant the A-0 did not reach Luftwaffe units until October           1943. (10)  The A-0 was usually armed with two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in the wing roots and up to four 20 mm or 30 mm cannon in a ventral weapons bay. The first 10–15 aircraft were delivered with the 490 MHz UHF-band FuG 212 "Lichtenstein" C-1 radar with a 4 × 8-dipole element Matratzeantenna array. 104 He 219 A-0s were built until the summer of 1944, the majority of them at EHW (Ernst Heinkel Wien) or Heinkel-Süd in Wien-Schwechat.

The first planned version to reach production was the He 219 A-2 model, which had longer engine nacelles containing extra fuel tanksunitized 1670 PS DB 603AA engines with higher critical altitude and often also two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannon, as an offensive Schräge Musik upward-firing system in the rear fuselage. With Schräge Musik, the ventral weapons bay held two cannon due to space limitations. (11) The A-2 featured an updated, 90 MHz VHF-band Telefunken FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar system, complete with its larger, high-drag 4 × 2-dipole element Hirschgeweih aerials. It initially had a longer minimum range than the C-1 radar but improved accuracy and resolution and was also less vulnerable to chaff jamming, through the late summer of 1944. A total of 85 He 219 A-2s were built until November 1944, most at EHR (Ernst Heinkel Rostock) orHeinkel-Nord in Rostock-Marienehe (now Rostock-Schmarl).
The He 219 was a capable fighter aircraft and the pilots were free to hunt down any detected Allied bombers. Ground control sent the aircraft into the right area, where the pilots took over and guided themselves towards the bombers with the Lichtenstein VHF radar's information. The SN-2 radar's 4 km (3 mi) range was greater than the distance between the bombers. While the performance of the A-2 was not extraordinary—approximately 580 km/h (360 mph) speed—it was enough of an advance over the Messerschmitt Bf 110 Gs and Dornier Do 217 Ns, for the crew to chase several bombers in a single sortie.

To improve its ability to intercept the Mosquito, the He 219 had excess weight removed. With some weapon and radio systems deleted, the aircraft was able to attain a speed of 650 km/h (400 mph). This version was given the designation A-6. None of these were produced but similar weight saving measures could be done at the unit level.
The last major production version was the A-7 with improved, unitized DB 603E engines. The A-7 typically had two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in the wing roots (inboard of the propeller arcs), two 20 mm MG 151/20 in the ventral weapons bay and two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108s as Schräge Musik. Production of 210 aircraft was to start November/December 1944 but the number produced is not known as original documents have been lost or contained no sub-version number.

Further developments

The troublesome Jumo 222 multibank engine, meant for the He 219B and -C subtypes
The follow-on series to the He 219As in service was to be the He 219B fitted with new but
troublesome 1,864 kW (2,500 hp) Junkers Jumo 222A/B 24-cylinder engines—a multibank, liquid-cooled inline engine, with six rows of cylinder blocks having four cylinders each—which would have allowed the He 219 to reach 700 km/h (440 mph), each of which were almost the same displacement in their A/B and E/F versions and only very slightly heavier, compared to the Double Wasp radial engines in the American P-61 night fighter. The He 219B wing, was also to have had an increased span of 22.06 m (72.38 ft) for better high altitude performance. The Jumo 222 did not reach production status, with just under 300 examples built in at least three differing displacement sizes. Only a few test machines were fitted for the engines; some additional airframes with the enlarged wing, were slated to fly with high-altitude versions of the DB 603 but only one or two test machines flew with them.
A further adaptation would have been the He 219C, also intended to use the big wing and Jumo 222 powerplants as well as an all-new fuselage of 17.15 m (56.27 ft), with a complete three-man Ju 388J cockpit section forward, converted to accept the He 219A's standard nose gear layout (the Ju 388 itself used the Ju 88's conventional gear), the same HL 131V Hecklafette "quadmount" four gun manned tail turret intended for later He 177A versions and the He 177B-5, as well as more than one Amerika Bomber strategic bomber design competitor. (12) Day bomber and night fighter versions were proposed and metal was cut for the project but, without the >1,500-kW output Jumo 222 engines getting out of their strictly experimental status, they never flew.
Paper projects include the very-high-altitude He 219E with a vastly increased wingspan of 28.5 m (93.5 ft) and DB 614 engines, which were apparently an uprated DB 603G capable of 1,491 kW (2,000 hp).

A more reasonable project was the Hütter Hü 211, a design by Wolfgang Hütter that took a standard He 219 fuselage and tail and added a long-span, high aspect ratio wing of 24.55 m (80.54 ft) to create a fast, high altitude interceptor. Since this design was also meant to be powered by the ill-fated Jumo 222 it never flew, although work continued on two sets of wings until they were destroyed by Allied bombing.
The He 219 was the only piston-engined night fighter capable of facing the British Mosquito on equal terms, given its speed, manoeuvrability and firepower, (13) but it never played a significant role in the war because the industry failed to make it available in sufficient numbers. (14)


He 219 V1/V2
The first prototype equipped with 1,750 hp (1305 kW) DB 603A engines; originally unarmed, but later two 20 mm MG 151/20 and pivoted 13 mm (0.51 in) MG 131; provision for two rear barbettes. He 219 V2 was the second prototype.
He 219 V3/V4/V5/V6
The He 219 V3 was the first aircraft with a longer fuselage and larger tail to correct poor yaw/roll stability. The He 219 V4/V5 incorporated FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 radar. The He 219 V6 was armed with six 15 mm MG 151/15 machine guns and the barbettes were eliminated.

He 219A-0
Pre-production series, most with DB 603A engines, 14 armament schemes and at least one with ejection seats
He 219A-1
Planned production aircraft with 1,800 hp (1342 kW) DB 603E engines. Only one aircraft was produced.

He 219A-2
First production version, a two-seater with 1,750 hp (1303 kW) DB 603A engines. Basic armament of two MK 108 and four MG 151/20, but following Rustsätze kits offered variations: R1 six MG 151/20; R2 four MK 103 and two MG 151/20; R3 four MK 108 and two MG 151/20; R4 four MG 151/20 and two MK 108 oblique.

He 219A-3
Proposed fighter-bomber with three crew and 1,900 hp (1415 kW) DB 603G engines but not built.

He 219A-4
Long-span reconnaissance bomber with Junkers Jumo 222 engines. Never built.

He 219A-5
Major production version equipped initially with DB 603A engines, but most with 1,800 hp (1342 kW) DB 603E engines. Usual armament consisted of six MG 151/20 and two MK 108 oblique but many R-kits and other variations. He 219A-5/R4 adding third cockpit with raised canopy and pivoted MG 131.

He 219A-6
Lightweight 'anti-Mosquito' version, 26,345 lbs (11950 kg) loaded, with Daimler-Benz DB 603L two-stage engines with MW-50 water/methanol and GM-1 Nitrous Oxide boost. Speed of 404 mph (650 km/h) at up to 39,370 ft (12000 m).

He 219A-7
Similar to the He 219A-5 but with improved supercharger intakes for its DB 603G engines; in addition to the standard schrage Musik installation, the He 219A-7/R1 had two wing root-mounted MK 108s, and two MG 151s and two 30 mm MK 103s in the ventral tray; the He 219A-7/R2 had MK 108s in place of the ventral MK 103s, and the He 219A-7/R3 had the wing root MK 108s replaced by MG 151s and the ventral tray of the He 219A-7/R2; the He 219A-7/R4 had tail warning radar and just four MG 151s; six He 219A-71R5 night fighters were effectively He 219A-7/R3s with 1417 kW (1,900 hp) Junkers Jumo 213E engines and a water-methanol injection system; the single He 219A-7/R6 had two 1864 kW (2,500 hp) Jumo 222A/B engines.

He 219B
Series of developed long-span machines with extended fuselage. Most aircraft had the Daimler-Benz DB 603A engine, although original plans called for the Junkers Jumo 222 engine.

He 219C/C-1/C-2
Long-span wing of He 219B combined with totally new longer fuselage with four-seat pressure cabin at front and gunner in HDL 131 V tail turret (four MG 131). He 219C-1 night-fighter with two MK 108 cannon under cockpit, two oblique behind cockpit and two 20 mm MG 151/20 in the wings. 

He 219C-2 fighter-bomber
with two forward 30 mm MK 103 and three SC 500 1,102 lbs (500 kg) bombs under fuselage.

He 319
An unbuilt multi-role derivative.

He 419
Various derived projects culminating in He 419B-1/R1, six of which were flown; He 319 tail, very long-span wing of 59 square metres (635 sq ft), two 20 mm MG 151/20 in the wings and four 30 mm MK 108 in ventral housing. Speed of 422 mph (679 km/h to 44,619 ft (13600 m).

Hü 211
A high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft designed by Dr Ing Hutter with the He 219 fuselage and tail married to an 80 ft 6 in (24.54 m) wooden wing with tremendous range, speed and height. Single aircraft was destroyed before being completed. (2)