Sunday, 18 October 2015

Luftwaffe Bombs

This text is a free translation of the article from website , made ​​by the software. We encourage you to read from the source: http://www.deutscheluftwaffe.de (thx for Luis German Dzib Aquilar)

I. General


The penetration of the armor on the tank deck at fortifications and warships to combat it has always been very difficult. Although after the invention of the solid could return load guns with the full stories of hardened steel and later with steel projectiles with explosive filling some success has been achieved, but the use of artillery for this purpose was, on the whole, quite satisfactory.
While there was enough in the fight against fortifications turrets to shoot incapacitated or damaging the guns, serious damage could be done on the armored deck of a warship only if a large-caliber shell hit quite upright and with great force to the deck.

From the use of torpedoes apart, belonging to a completely different fight methods, the chances increased only after you had created airplanes that make large-caliber bombs with high penetrating power could yield.
Now Germany had for the lost 1.Weltkrieg sign the so-called "peace treaty between Germany and the Entente", better known as the "Treaty of Versailles" in which it was in Article 198 as follows:
"Germany must entertain Air Force neither by land nor by water as part of its military system. Germany may last longer than the 1st October 1919 a maximum number of one hundred seaplanes or flying boats entertain that, exclusively intended for the exploration of submarine mines , for this purpose, with the necessary equipment are provided and may carry in any circumstances in arms, munitions or bombs of any kind . "
Once you are in Germany, had somewhat recovered from the shock, the this and the many other restrictions had triggered the competent military authorities had no intention to watch as the Allies continues rearming, always more modern weapons, ships and aircraft constructed while the once mighty Germany in the heart of Europe this bustle faced defenseless ..
And so the German military developed secret activities to which we have often referred. Because this under the eyes of the supervisory bodies of the victorious powers in Germany was very limited but possible, these were transferred at the beginning of the twenties abroad.
In aviation it looked so that German companies set up branches abroad and civil aircraft constructed, but in case of need for war planes could have been changed or evolved. After all, you did not want to lose touch with the modern technology and gain experience in other aircraft.
The Junkers set up a branch in Altenrhein, on the Swiss shore of Lake Constance and the company Rohrbach went Lopenhagen. Then Junkers went Limham in southern Sweden, where the G 24 has been equipped with 3 pieces Junker engines each 300 hp to join with Swedish registration on aviation.
While the locally built aircraft were not readily suitable for military use, comb the German authorities located another event.
In the further course of the closed in Rapallo between Germany and Russia on 04.16.1922 contract, the in November 1922 also joined the other Soviet states and in which not only a cancellation of mutual military schools, but also a strong German economic and technological help structure of the Soviet economy was decided eventually built the German firm Junkers in Fili near Moscow a work, in which several hundred reconnaissance and fighter planes were made for Russia.
During the year 1926, then by the Germans in Lipetsk a flying school in Kazan an armor school and set up at the airfield near Moscow Uchtomskaja a test site for the use of poison gas.
Now even attempts at bombing could also in the years 1927 and 1928 with German aircraft by Junkers and Rohrbach who had flown to Lipetsk, be performed wherein at aircraft, the Junkers "G 24" and the Rohrbach "Roland" each with around 1000 were tested kg bomb load.
At the same time the Swedish Air Force carried out experiments in the bombing. To this end, the Swedes acquired the license for reproduction of the German PuW bombs, and also because the target devices should be provided for this purpose by the company Carl Zeiss Jena, succeeded in the German Defense Ministry German officer to be taking part in the tests in which a 1000 kg bomb was used.
The issue of rocket propulsion 06.22.1931

The testing of bombs abroad went to 1932, especially in Russia, continued. After the "Hitler came to power" on 01.30.1933, the German experimental command in Lipetsk was disbanded and relocated the attempts to Germany.
The competent authorities of Heereswaffenamt and the Procurement Office were summarized in the "Technical Office" of the newly founded Reich Aviation Office, which is now also took over the testing of bombs. Because the countries should not find out about the still forbidden experiments, they were camouflaged in the testing sites in Rechlin and Travemünde, by concurrent firing exercises, performed. At the very same time orders were for the development and manufacture of bombs, sights, bombing throw devices, etc., are often awarded to smaller companies.
Been achieved with the appointment of Lieutenant General Werner von Blomberg to General and Minister of Defense on 30.01.1933, the adoption of the new Reichswehr Act on 07.20.1933, the withdrawal of Germany from the so-called Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, talked a lot in, but nothing was (chief the German delegation was most recently General v. Blomberg), from 11.12.1933 and simultaneous withdrawal of Germany from the "League of Nations" began the further expansion of the German Wehrmacht and the rebuilding of a German Luftwaffe.
In addition to new types of aircraft and antiaircraft guns, new cluster bombs, large caliber mine bombs, incendiary bombs, explosive bombs originated etc.
Draft of 1933


 II. The Panzer bombs

Since the bomb development, also in the other states, was always more advanced and now those have been developed with weights of 1,000 kg or more, it was generally gone over turrets with a particularly strong armor and fortifications with meter-thick concrete panels and valuable warships with some several armored deck to protect it against attacks from the air.
Since not much could be done with conventional bombs, the time came for the tank bombs and armor piercing bombs. The latter had a top made of specially hardened steel and an additional explosive charge that was detonated only if the bomb had gone through the deck, only to damage the machinery or bring possible by a hit in ammunition chamber, the total destruction of a ship.
The armored deck could however only be hit when the bomb hit with a corresponding impact on the deck. This in turn caused a large drop height, while still a high attack can be achieved, but the probability of a hit greatly reduces .. In addition, the bomb had to have a large weight in order to achieve the speed at all.
Now the Ministry of Aviation fortunately some experts in relevant positions (Prof. Heinrich Klein, Colonel Engineer Marquard, General Udet, Colonel Jeschonnek, Hermman Goring) who believed in a bright future of being launched rocket technology and the view were represented, that the penetration of armor bombs significantly could be enhanced if they could, these provided with a rocket engine.
And so the RLM issued on 10.25.1934 the Ordnance Office commissioned to be developed so-called "ballast or bomb accelerator".
To this end, we read in the "overview of the state of developments in the army" as of 01.08.1942, Br. 661/42 g.Kdos. Wa test rod as follows:

Subject: Bomb Accelerator
Amount receivable: R'- drive for bomb development acceleration demanded by: RLM
Development Company: Rheinmetall-Borsig, Berlin Marienfelde job to Waffenamt issued: 10/25/1934
Current status: Rheinmetall drive to force released.
Short-term drive: redesigned by Rheinmetall according Wa test 11 with respect to the mechanical structure. For 2 temperature ranges from -35 ° C to + 30 ° C, and + 10 ° C. to + 50 ° C testing. Construction in progress.
Introduction maturity Expected: Autumn 1942
Test pieces: Available 6 test drives in order: matter RLM
Mass ejection: Matter RLM

Technical specifications:
Caliber: 40 cm and more
Punch capacity: 180 mm armor and more
Weight shedding finish: 1050 kg

Specific comments:
R'Bomben (Rheinmetall) until now hardly in use. From April 1942 increased use in the Mediterranean. Decision on short-term drive not fallen by RLM.
The order has been issued in 1934. While at the Army Ordnance Office, but with the development itself, it took a little longer. While running at the time the tests with various rocket engines at full Rouren but a success they were still some distance away.
The RLM, which was firmly convinced of the effectiveness of missile engines, had even run at this time another project, namely the board weapon "RZ 65", in which one rather than "rocket propulsion" chose so the code name "Smoke-cylinder".
About the beginning of the experiment gives us the report "About the current state of development of smoke cylinder of caliber 65 mm" of "test site of the Air Force, Tarnewitz" from 29.11.1937Auskunft. It states, inter alia, as follows:

Development program:
After the screening of Mehrkammerrakaten -type Trilling- on Wangerooge on 15 / 16.07.1934 and the Decision of LC II on 07/27/1934 was in a meeting at Heereswaffenamt on 07/30/1934 developing "smoke cylinders for board armament of aircraft to combat enemy bombing squadrons "decided.

It was pointed out that at the former Wa Prw. 1/1 present the most experience with smoke cylinders and proposed to include with the company Sander, Wesermünde, connection and there turnkey flue cylinder caliber 6 -.. To have prepared 8 cm with payload bodies "
The development of different types of missiles and systems was only possible through the intervention of several companies. Unfortunately, in this case the Army Ordnance Department, the Air Force Office and the Naval Weapons Office worked in no medium-but even more to today.
As for the "powered armor bombs" are concerned, writes Dr. Heinrich Klein, the rocket specialist of the company Rheinmetall, in his book "From the basement to the fireball" that to only towards the end of 1935 Dipl.Ing.Ernst Marquard from the RLM Rheinmetall came to talk about the development of new bombs. And only towards the end of 1936 should Marquard, who later as general engineer of the Department of discharge ammunition in RLM headed, Heinrich Klein who commissioned by the ballistic department of Rheinmetall to look for ways to increase the penetration of armor bombs.
With the reintroduction of universal conscription in Germany on 03.16.1935 all barriers had fallen. Now one needed no longer a secret to operate and could be open to the development of new weapons systems in order.
According L.Dv. 199 "Preliminary description of dropping ammunition" from 1935 were introduced at this time:

SC 10 as a cluster bomb
SC 10 t as a cluster bomb without wings for low discharge heights
GC 10 as a combat-bomb
SC 50 as mine bomb
SC 250 as mine bomb
SC 500 as mine bomb
B 1 El. as firebomb
GC 50 as a combat-bomb
LC 10 F 33 III as luminous parachute bomb
and the associated training and Exerzierbomben.

But more and more effective bombs were already in development or have been proposed. So we can, for example, seen from Document 1 that is already on the 10.26.1933 Heereswaffenamt, Wa 1 testing has the Reich Aviation Ministry proposed an armored bomb as SC 500 P, after the Office of the RLM C testing had requested on 15.8.1933 it.
On page 2 of this document is a handwritten note from the 26.10, which reads as follows.:

"I propose to point out that the use of a rocket is possible and should be attempted in the way that this occurs only shortly before impact in activity."

This memo dated 10.26.1933 is so far very meaningful, because he was made up to one day, exactly one year before the award of the contract to develop an accelerated through Raketrentrieb armored bomb from 10.25.1934.
Draft of 1933
Sketch S.C.500 of 1933


Now it lacked at that time not to proposals by developers and so-called "inventors". Even a "self-directed aerial bomb" in 1935 proposed.
Thus, a Mr. Friedrich Vögtle from Ehingen turned on 03/05/1935 at the "Wehr Political Bureau of the NSDAP in Munich, with copies to the district office of the NSDAP in Ehingen and an undisclosed office in Berlin In it Mr. Vogtle writes as follows.:

"Mr. Director Beck, Munich. (Ought Böckh hot) I am sending you the documents discussed and drawings. The patent application as enclosed copy was sent today also to Berlin.
I hope that the matter can also utilize as it is my wish.
Incidentally, I impart to you still writing the authority, the whole thing verweerten so, how do you keep it most convenient & as our country is best served with the matter. I ask to be considered as suggestions The steerable body thing.
If you can give me suggestions for new work, so I would be sincerely grateful.
My best thanks in advance, Heil Hitler! (Signature) "
Document 2 of 07 / 05.08.1935

It can be seen that Mr. Vogtle has already (probably by telephone) contacted the military political office and therefore has the spelling of the name Böckh rendered incorrectly.
The district headquarters in Ehingen was the operation on 05/07/1935 Director Mr. Boeckh from military official from the Political and asked for further action (Document 2) documents are received on 05.08.1935 there and this input on the same day under No. 1604/11 g the Lord Vogtle and confirmed with a separate letter Mr Kreisleiter Blankenhorn.
Unfortunately, what was further action in this matter is unknown.

List of tank bombs:
Designation Weight in kg diameter in mm length in mm in kg explosives
PC 500 "Pauline" 500 395 2007 98
PC 1000 "Paul" 1000 500 2100 160
PC 1400 "Fritz" 1400 562 2836 200
PC 1600 660 3185 280 1600



Further development:
The first built in large series, suitable for swooping fighter aircraft, the Junkers Ju 87 was machine She was considered the most suitable machine for controlling point targets in the fall attack. The fall was the attack at that time considered to be expedient Attack against point targets. This view came through even in the ranks of the experts of the Technical Office, so that the elaboration of this struggle pattern and the training of flight personnel were conducted in the fall of martial art with the utmost determination. According to relevant locations in the Aviation Ministry considers the fall fighting machine should shoot from a height of about 3000 m in an almost perpendicular steep flight to the target, notching the bomb load at an altitude of 2000 m, will then be captured and out controlled from the battlefield. This attack tactics was dominated after a thorough training of pilots in nearly perfect manner. If the discharge height of the bomb load was located about 2,000 m, so therefore, to avoid the danger zone of low-flying aircraft weapons. The Reith width automatic antiaircraft weapons was about 1500 m. The use of the heavy ships' against dive bombers, was not considered to be significant because of the short time in which expired the offensive operation. Still lacking with increasing armor of warships the armor-piercing weapon!
1936 the famous fighter pilot of World War I, E. Udet, the prescribed Also after the war continued in aviation and made a name for his aerobatics, had been invited to a sporting event flight to America. There he had very impressed by his daredevil aerobatics parades and had come over the air sporting event with circles of the American Air Force in conjunction. Udet enjoyed high reputation in America and was one of the few pilots who could build a bridge to understanding between America and Germany. It came to him in the discussions on the further expansion of the Air Force very accommodating, heard his proposals carefully and went so far as to give him a gentleman's agreement to present in America experiences in the field of air forces widely noted. So Udet came back with a number of valuable experiences and documents. Among these documents, there was also the material for the American launched munitions. It included the drawings for the 50 kg 250 kg and the 500 kg bomb - all blockbusters. These documents were given to the ballistic department of Rheinmetall-Borsig note and review. Marquard asked to consider whether they could stay with this structure, or should they develop according to new viewpoints. It was in these blockbusters to welded Konstraktionen for cases in which, unfortunately, the welds at high stress areas were
On the route from Berlin to Mecklenburg Neustrelitz located. From there a small railway runs to Rechlin. The place Rechlin lies embedded in the Lake District of Mecklenburg country. In its immediate vicinity had been constructed the new testing space of the Luftwaffe. There, the model of the Air Force a sharp probation test were subjected. Away from the airfield on a secluded, the safety regulations sufficient grounds, Marquard had raised an intercept position for the bomb testing. A huge concrete surface in the order 100x100 m was the target. Meßstände with Photo and cinetheodolites completed the picture of this bombing attempt course. You could track the paths, speed and impact effect of the bombs. The first tests were carried out with the now reconstructed American launched munitions. The fall of attacks were carried out via radio communications with the crew pilots according to precise rules, and the participants involved in the experiments always heard the familiar commands "machine flies at" - "machine crashes" - "triggered Abwurfmuntion" - "machine intercepted nosedive". Not always the concrete target has been met, since the overthrow of military equipment would be learned first. Quick but the meeting near the target cross was better. It turned out after the first experiments that the American launched munitions themselves against lightweight concrete objectives, because such presented the concrete slab of forty centimeters thick is, was totally unsuitable because regularly tore the weld points between the head and casing; detonation of the explosive charge of the exercise provided with time ignition igniter could not be reached because the bombs had gone ahead to break. So there had to be new constructive ways been looking for blockbusters.
The contact between the Wehrmacht and exchange of experience in the munitions sector had become more closely now. Also contributed to the efforts of the different arms companies which aufzeigten many points where developments were backward. There was still plenty armor-piercing munitions launched in the air force. More and more pushed the thought to the forefront, planning to take a drop ammunition for armored targets, ie, in particular for ship targets. It was known that the Navy was in a constant race between projectile and armor for decades. It was in this branch of the Wehrmacht already tradition. But the race between projectile and armor made his also increasingly on the army; because the armor for nascent in the development of armored vehicles were becoming stronger. And with the looming higher combat capability of the Air Force and the armor-piercing ammunition was a need of the hour for this branch of the Wehrmacht.
The technical experts of the Air Force were well aware that the dive bombing technique whose most zealous representatives of the Deputy Ministers, meanwhile, General Udet himself was, alone was not enough to make it through hit an armored warship incapacitating. One had to look for new solutions.
At this time, the developer proposed the construction of tanks bombs with rocket propulsion for fighting ship units with armored decks in the air force (RLM). It was this development, the code name "ballast accelerator". Since the development of the R-powder rocket engines still in its infancy, one was in to transmitting new development initially rely to use the S-powder propellant charges. The first drafts looked like that you want of a better technical possibilities for a 50kg tank shell had to choose a multi-drive of the same deflagrating S powder rockets. 3 sets were placed in combination for this ballast type of accelerator. The tank shell itself had 15 cm caliber. a For the 28 cm-tank rounds, with had sek meet impact speed of at least 350 m / the ship target in order to strike a drive of 5 S-powder rocket records was provided. The 21 cm ballast accelerator had a weight of 150 kg, while the 28 cm ballast accelerator having a weight of approximately 250 kg. The 21cm ballast accelerator with the S-rocket engine was tested in the development up to the state tests. This development was then undermined by the creation of larger drive units with R-powder propellant charges that were much more powerful and allowed greater impact speed of armored bombs. Thus arose designs for the 200 kilo and 500 kilos armor bombs at the same weight had a significantly greater impact ability when comparing with the ballast accelerator of S powder drives.
The tank explosive shell is connected to the drive part or missile body by means of an intermediate tube, takes place from which the current command for the electrical ignition of the propellant charge and the explosive charge of the projectile with an associated delay. The accentuation of the propellant sat about 2-3 seconds after release or the replacement of the bombing of the machine. The delay for the initiation of the detonator by contact triggering at the impact of the bomb was only a few hundredths of a second.

Im Anschluß an diese Erstkonstruktionen wurde das Projekt einer 500 kg Panzerbombe ebenfalls mit einem Kaliber von 28 cm in Angriff genommen, weil die verbesserte Ju 87 B eine Abwurfmunition von 500 kg im Sturzflug mitführen konnte. Diese Bombe hatte als Nutzlastkopf eine 28 cm Panzersprenggranate. Die Entwicklung der Raketenbombe ging nicht schnell vonstatten, weil von höchster Stelle der Luftwaffe immer wieder eingewendet wurde, daß die Treffähigkeit der Raketenbomben zu gering und so der Munitionsaufwand zu groß sei. Diese abwegige Beurteilung der Raketenbomben konnte erst nach einer Reihe von systematisch durchgeführten Abwurfversuchen mit Bahn Vermessungen zerstreut werden. Die Erprobungen selbst zogen sich bis in das erste Kriegsjahr hin.
Später ordnete Göring die Entwicklung schwerer Abwurfmunition zur Bekämpfung von Schiffszielen an. Das war das sogenannte Y-Programm für schwere Bomben von 500 kg aufwärts. Es entstanden die Minenbomben SC 1000 (Tarnbezeichnung Hermann), SC 2000 (Siegmund), SA 4000 (Satan) und die Raketen-Panzerbomben PC 500 RS (Pauline), PC 1000 RS (Paul), PC 1750 RS (Pirat). Daneben gab es auch noch mehrere Halbpanzerbombentypen, deren größter Typ die Bombe von 1400 kg (Fritz) war. Sie erreichte einen Panzerdurchschlag von 160 mm bei 60°Auftreffwinkel. Diese Bombe schälte sich als Standardtyp heraus. Göring hat von seiner Auffassung über die große Wirksamkeit der Minenbomben nicht abgelassen. Die schweren SC Typen wurden von ihm befohlen. Die erste SC 1000 erhielt daher den Tarnnamen "Hermann".
Interim Report PC 500 RS from 06.18.1940

In the course of the Y-program include the development of a large Air Force development work for heavy rocket ammunition were ordered. Prof. Heinrich Klein and with the two top engineers Steingrübner and Müller's work near Berlin was brought up in the halls of a freight wagon repair factory of the Reichsbahn and delivered after just one year all prototypes of heavy armor-piercing launched munitions, including remote-controlled bomb Fritz (X) later the first Flaraketen, type "Rhine daughter", and the first multi-stage rocket "Rheinbote".
After careful training of pilots for the fall fight with the Ju 88, began in the spring of 1941 the first use of rocket bombs against enemy warships in the Mediterranean Sea. When the first reports came to England, wrote the London press:

"The Germans have a new formidable weapon -. The rocket bomb an eerie feeling creeps everyone who has experienced their application even if the bomber attaches to fall on his goal, as he lunged at right angles to this, but then in the given. moment fades the bomb, this after a few seconds, snarling and hissing, faster and faster, zustürzt to the target, then you can experience seconds of paralyzing helplessness. The rocket bomb is the greatest invention that we have learned from the Germans for decades. "
An inquiry in the lower house of the Secretary of Defense, if there was no defense against this new weapon had to be answered in the negative!
During this time, squadron commander Captain Peltz was with his men one of the most successful fighter pilot in the use of rocket bombs. He forced through his dangerous attacks the British naval units in the output ports back. Even Captain Baumbach, another bold battle squadron leader was feared. Peltz pushed - probably unique in an officer's career - as a 28 year old Captain within 2 years to major general on.
Shortly afterwards, the first comprehensive use of ballast accelerators, half armor bombs and blockbusters with weights of 500 to about 1500 kg occurred. It was the end of May 1941. This attack was the prelude to the invasion of the island of Crete. He was stationed in Souda Bay warship units, and a gathered there tanker fleet and the airfields on the island. The attack was flown from the X Air Corps, which was under the leadership of General Wolfram v. Richthofen, so that officer who had conducted 5 years ago, the Condor Legion in Spain.
After taking the island of Crete, a small group, namely the Inspector of the bombers, General Plochingen, flying Oberstabsarzt engineer flew v. Gordon and Prof. Heinrich Klein Italy, Greece to Crete, to the effects of heavy air raid on the stationed in Souda Bay naval units to study. The warship Association had consisted of two protected cruisers, 4 unprotected cruisers and a number of torpedo boats and a fleet of about 20 tankers. The entire navy and merchant fleet units were smashed. The heavy tank bombs had done a great job. They had the superstructure battered smooth with the protected cruisers and had advanced to the protected machinery spaces or ammunition chambers and detonates there. It was no different fared unprotected cruisers and torpedo boats that were so badly damaged that they had failed or completely unmanageable. The tankers, which were slightly outside the bay, but still in the shallow waters, infected either bow or stern side aground and stuck spooky emerge from the water surface. It was not easy to come on deck this battered ships to fathom about how the bombs themselves had an impact on the ship's destinations.
The officer in Souda Bay, a paratrooper captain, explained that significant resistance has not been done at the landing maneuvers on the part of the British naval forces stationed there. They were so shocked by the attack that they had taken the courage to fight on.
Another time was, used the X Air Corps, which was trained for the use of heavy shedding ammunition at a large-scale operation. That was at the siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol on the Black Sea. Associations of the Air Corps contributed significantly to the destruction of the strong fortifications with heaviest rocket-tank bombs at in conjunction with the heaviest artillery of the army, including the 80 cm-Eisenbahngeschhütz Dora. The conclusion and the crowning of success with the use of the most severe drop ammunition was the destruction of the Italian battleship Roma, which operated on the side of the Allied forces, with the 1450 kg heavy downstream and remote-controlled tanks bomb Fritz X. Dr. Max Kramer, Head of Department in the German Research Institute for Aviation had already dealt in 1937 with the remote control of the case bombs.

Note: The remote-controlled bomb Fritz Panzer X - we will deal with in a separate article in the near future!


III. Tracked armored bombs

Use: against armored targets (ships)
Here you had put the problem to fight heavily armored ship units more effectively. First you had in fact believed battleships, z. B. the English "Nelson" class to be able to deal effectively with the SC 1800's. But the armored 160 mm main deck was again protected by more decks of 30 mm and 10 mm , directed Deck hit only medium damage. It was suggested to achieve water hits within a 2.5-m-limit from the ship, because the resulting in the case of pressure even with armor up to 60 mm thickness caused severe damage. How many bombs are necessary , just to score a goal also to enemy anti-aircraft fire, the lying from March 30 to April 21, 1941 on in Brest German battleships "Gneisenau" and "Scharnhorst" show us dropped 2870 bombs with which every ship only ever a Results were achieved.
Battleship, the English "Nelson" class

Well, after all, it was found that in the recommended procedures for the battleship "Nelson" is merely a target area of ​​860 m2 remained, while the entire top surface was about five times greater with 4800 m2. It had to be some way, this powerful deck armor to by beat. Rh. B. then proposed the TS 3 in front, a 1584 mm long bomb of 368 mm diameter, which was a six-sided, hardened steel pyramid on its head. When hitting this 1000 kg heavy bombing should according to the type of Vickers hardness tests in the armor cracks through which the tank "broken" was. Another suggestion was to fire heavy Pz.Bomben nosedive from a BSR (bomb shot sleeve) and take advantage of the extra speed to the breakdown. Experiments were carried out with rearranged to smooth runs prey cannons cal. 380, 560 and 680 mm. This was followed by the development of "ejection bomb", where one out fired a Pz.Geschoß from the tubular casing of the bomb body shortly before the finish. A similar solution was the "Coat bomb" of 1680 mm length and 450 mm in diameter, from which the Pz.Geschoß yet further 160 mm stand out. A new feature was also proposed by the KG-special group of LFA end of 1940 RP (direction detonation tank) bomb, from the after penetration of the upper deck only one fired by a pulse detonator Pz.Gr. should penetrate the main deck.
Of all these developments some experimental series were only from the ejection bomb manufactured and tested.

List of driven armored bombs:
Designation Weight in kg diameter in mm length in mm in kg explosives
PC 500 RS "Pauline" 625 300 2100 14.5
PC 500 AP 502 307 2009 10
PC PD 500 - - - -
PC 1000 RS "Paul" 1040 395 2220 65
PC 1750 RS "Pirate" (project) - 536 2690 -
PC 1800 RS "Panther" 2115 536 2690 220
? PC 2000 RS? (see report Unterlüss) 2000-2600 180


IV. PC 500 RS (PD, AP) "Pauline"


PC 500 RS with Trailer LW 500 G
Since the APP bombs brought too little explosives in the goal were at Rhein Metal Borsig but now started experiments with the RS-bombs, including one as a test pattern specifically a PC 20 RS created. First you tried as a propellant ordinary black powder, and it came through uneven Ab-brand excessive slippages and even Bahnkrepierern. One renounced now on the central nozzle and tried without success a model with three individual nozzle. Now you knew an SD 50 with a 12 kg RS engine from 5 Diglykolröhren of each 0.58 kg weight, which were then replaced by two kidney-shaped charges, each 1.85 kg. There is a thrust of 1360 kp was produced with a burning time of 0.5 sec.
Focke Wulf works from 01.11.1939
The planned 70 PC RS was stopped again in its development, the 24 kg RS-motor having a propellant charge of 8.75 kg was used but at the SD 70, being at a burning time of 0.7 sec. By a boost in 2285 kp reached. It was now on operational pattern over and provided the SC 500 with such an engine, carrying 71 kg Diglykolpulver. With a burn time of 2 sec. Achieved is a thrust of 6500 kp. This type was used in small quantities in the deep attack against protected targets such. B. Flakkonzentrationen. In August 1942, the developments were completed and the first operational Pz.Bombe we can the PC view 500 RS "Pauline", the (576 km / h =) reached by the additional rocket engine is a 160 m / sec. Higher impact speed, thereby increased penetration capability to nearly 200 mm armor steel. Even with the drop in the horizontal attack from 3500 m height were penetrated nor 190 mm. In the battleship "Nelson" were by the PC 500 RS almost 88% of the top surface punch at risk.
Specifications for the PC 500 RSAP, PD) "Pauline":
Length 2100 mm
Diameter 300 mm
Diameter of 300 mm Pz.Kopfes
Length of 856 mm Pz.Kopfes
Total weight 625 kg
Engine weight 130 kg
Propellant 27.4 kg
12-14.5 kg explosives
Burning time 2.4 sec.
Thrust max. 2080 kp
Impact speed 345 m / sec.
collection from the report Unterlüss No. 295 / X

From the "Pauline" who was wearing a three flat tail with 8 additional tail stumps, about 600 pieces in the various bearings by the company Rhein Metal Borsig, who had also taken over the development of the other RS-bombs at Dr. Klein, been delivered.
The structure was in all RS-bombs equal to: The normal Pz.Bombe was by means of an intermediate piece which contained the electrically actuated ignition system, with the rear part, in which the engine was (from St. 45.29) housed with the propellent charge, respectively. As a propellant mixture of Diglykolpulver a Schwarzpulverbeiladung was (sporadically also a Nitroglyzerinpulver) used which was designated PMF 109th When ex-litter carried by the ignition system, the ignition of the propellant charge, thereafter, by a ZZ of Bd.Z. the Pz.Bombe unlocked, the only addressed when the main deck but was already hit.
PC 500 RS-sectional drawing
Report wind tunnel measurement bomb form SC 500 RS II 1943

V. PC 1000 RS "Paul"

Usage:
Use against bunkers and battleships. Only in fall at least 50 °. Use only after special training!
Description:
Total length of the PC 1000 RS 2220 mm diameter of the PC 1000 RS 398 mm.
Classification, thick-walled bomb made of tempered material with hardened steel. Instead of the normal tail unit a drive member (rocket-set suspension is mounted. The rocket pack occurs ~ 2.7 sec after dropping in activity and wirkt- 3 sec.. Carried out by Aufhängewarze.
Labelling:
Blue stripes on the conical surfaces of the tail unit.
Packing:
1 PC 1000 RS on Caddy 2 (TG 2). (Curb weight about 65 kg.)
Special Note:
Used in PC RS 500 and PC 1000 RS detonators made of light metal (49) A II and the base fuse (49) A and III (49) B III are not properly and were therefore replaced. To avoid that bombs go with unexchanged detonators used bombs with detonators exchanged have been marked by a red circle around the mouth hole socket followed by red line on the wart and recently slash. Bombs with detonators old, without labeling above, led to unexploded ordnance and could therefore not be used!
Effect:
In Mindestauftreffwinkel of 60 ° punch of 180 mm armor steel.
With the used PC 1000 RS "Paul", were made by the more than 4000 pieces, were achieved in the Mediterranean on a cruiser "Dido" class a hit, the bomb hit at a speed of 1152 km / h and the igniter language 0.065 sec. after the impact on, but as the bomb had already leaked out of the ship's bottom and detonated 5 m below the water.
PC 1000 RS "Paul"
Comparatively follow the strengths of the various Pz.Decks for some types of ships:

Strengths of various Pz.Decks for some types of ships:
Battleship Heavy Cruiser Light Cruiser
Splitter Deck 30 mm 30 mm 30 mm
Steerage 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm
Armored deck 159 mm 80 mm 40 mm
The distances between the armouring deck were about 2.5 m.
PC 1000 RS "Paul" Sectional Drawing

Technische Daten der PC 1000 RS „Paul":
Länge
2220 mm
Durchmesser
395 mm
Durchmesser des Pz.Kopfes
395 mm
Länge des Pz.Kopfes
1190 mm
Gesamtgewicht
1040 kg
Sprengstoff
65 kg
Zünder
AZ 49
Auftreffgeschwindigkeit
320 m/Sek.
Specifications PC 1000 RS


Collection from the report Unterlüss No. 295 / X.


PC 1000 RS document 01/14/1941
PC 1000 RS document 07/10/1942


PC 1000 RS A (with disused propellant charge!)

She is the former one-piece, thick-walled PC 1000 RS with an former propellant tempered steel with hardened tip. Total length of the PC RS-1000 A = 2200 mm diameter of the PC RS-1000 A = 398 mm.
PC 1000 A sectional drawing

Usage:
Used against average bunker, heavy cruisers, aircraft carriers and battleships from horizontal flight to special union documents. (Tail shape and weight.) Always turn When using ZSK on mV! Focal detonators for rocket pack then gets no ignition voltage, ie it is virtually shut down. The PC-1000RS A then falls without additional drive like any other bomb.
Labelling:
The painting is beige gray, from the following tail plates are blue stripes. The bomb is labeled with: PC 1000 A with RS decommissioned propellant.
effect:
In a Mindestauftreffwinkel of 60 'and a minimum drop height of 5000 m 180 mm armor steel are pierced.

VI. PC 1750 RS "Pirate" (project)

Precursor of the "Driven panzer-bombs"
Under the above designation was designed a bomb form in October 1942 at the company Rhein Metal Borsig, which can be "Driven panzer-bombs" regarded as the precursor of. At an ogival tip of 620 mm length a 1042 mm long cylinder of 536 mm diameter was set, which a few steps facets was followed by a 520 mm long tail. for the stabilization caused a twelve flat tail of 857 mm wingspan. Apart from wind tunnel experiments that a drag coefficient of cw revealed for the first pattern 0.274, which can then by means of the lining of the stages facets to 0.234 was able to reduce, is the continuation of the project, unfortunately, nothing is known. When the "pirate" with 2690 mm the same length as the RS-bomb "Panther" had, but he was in shape rather with the PC 1000 RS compare.
The hitherto us only known image of a "pirate" RS Bomb!


 
Wind tunnel
measurements

VII. PC / PD 1800 RS "Panther"


As the largest bombing this group had the PC 1800 RS "Panther" developed which, with 972 km / h impinging, could penetrate 180 mm armor steel. When the relatively large explosive charge then exploded in the engine room, you could utmost with the safe sinking itself ship units expected.
Specifications for the PC in 1800 RS "Panther":

Length 2690 mm
Diameter 536 mm
Diameter of 536 mm Pz.Kopfes
Length of 1750 mm Pz.Kopfes
Total weight 2115 kg
220 kg explosives PMF 109
Igniter AZ (49) C
Impact speed 270 m / sec.
PC 1800 RS

PD 1800 RS (Thick-walled)
 PD 1800 RS (Thick-walled)
 Specifications PC 1800 RS

List production figures PC 1800 RS

VIII. Documents
10.07.1942 pdf. 1 MB

Reich Minister of Aviation 04/20/1944 pdf. 1 MB
Ju 87 B u. R launched weapon system pdf. 4 MB

Ju 88 use armor piercing bomb PC 1000 RS pdf. 11 MB
IX. picture Archive
PC 500 RS (APPD)

PC 500 in the caddy

PC 500 is lifted with Trailer LW G 500 with attached charging bay from Caddy
PC 500 of Junkers Ju 87 with new Abweisergabel



An attached thumb pressure on ETC 500 IX a